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Native American women face a pay gap—and that’s part of a much bigger problem

Get the facts about the pay gap for Native American women.

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The pay gap

Native American women are paid less than white men

October 1 was Native American Women’s Equal Pay Day. On average, Native American women are paid 40% less than white men.1

The pay gap by gender and race

The pay gap varies by tribe

If you break it down by tribe, some Native American women are paid even less.2

The pay gap by tribe

Did you know?

Native Americans represent less than 2% of the U.S. population and are made up of hundreds of tribes.3 While the majority of Native American communities live outside of reservations, the small size of this population makes it difficult to receive some of the information needed to effectively close the gap.

How it works

The pay gap starts early

From age 15, Native American girls are paid less than boys the same age—and the gap only grows from there.4

The pay gap by age

The pay gap widens with education level

Although Native American women are going to college and holding jobs at higher rates than ever before5, education doesn’t eliminate the pay gap. In fact, the gap is largest for Native American women with bachelor’s and master’s degrees—at least 40% less than white men on average.6

The pay gap by education level

Did you know?

A Native American woman with a bachelor’s degree makes $43,916—approximately the same amount a white man with just a high school diploma makes ($42,088).7

Even in the same job, the pay gap persists

On average, Native American women earn less than white men in the same role. For example, Native American women working as janitors and housekeepers earn 43% than white men doing the same job.8

The pay gap by occupation

Why it matters

Imagine losing out on almost a million dollars

The pay gap is not about a single paycheck. Over the course of the average Native American woman’s career, the lost income adds up to almost a million dollars compared to white men.9

Average lost income over a lifetime due to the pay gap

Did you know?

Native Americans face disproportionate rates of poverty and unemployment. The national poverty rate for Native Americans in 2018 was 25.4% compared to 13.1% for all Americans and the unemployment rate for Native Americans was 6.6% compared to 3.9% for all Americans.10

Families are on the frontline

Three in five Native American women (58%) are breadwinners for their families—meaning their household depends on their paycheck.11 When Native American moms are paid less, they have less money for basic family necessities like rent, groceries, and healthcare.

Share of mothers who are breadwinners

Did you know?

A 2017 study showed more than one in four Native American children lived in poverty.12

The pay gap is just one example of the barriers that Native American women face

The United States’ history of genocide, oppression, and marginalization of Native American people has a lasting impact today: Native American people face higher rates of poverty, unemployment, and health impacts than other groups of people.13 Women and girls are particularly disadvantaged, facing higher rates of violence and less legal protection from the state.14 And right now, Native American people are 3.5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than white people in the U.S.15

Native American women deserve fair pay. It’s time to close the gap.

Footnotes

  1. Institute for Women’s Policy Research, State-By-State Earnings for American Indian and Alaska Native Women: Wage Gaps Across the States (September 2020), https://iwpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Native-Women-Policy-Brief.pdf.
  2. Jasmine Tucker, Equal Pay For Native Women, National Women’s Law Center (September 2019), https://nwlc-ciw49tixgw5lbab.stackpathdns.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Native-Women-Equal-Pay-2019.pdf.
  3. USA Facts, “Native Americans and the US Census: How the count has changed,” November 21, 2019, https://usafacts.org/articles/native-americans-and-us-census-how-count-has-changed.
  4. Jasmine Tucker, Equal Pay For Native Women.
  5. Lauren Holter, “Native American Women Fight for a Better Future,” Bustle, August 13, 2015, https://www.bustle.com/articles/103209-native-american-women-are-fighting-for-a-better-future-by-getting-more-college-degrees-and-higher.
  6. NWLC calculations are based on 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-year sample using IPUMS-USA available at https://usa.ipums.org/usa/. Figures are based on women’s and men’s median earnings for full time, year round workers. Figures are not adjusted for inflation. Earnings are in 2017 dollars. Workers without a high school diploma exclude those who have not completed at least 9th grade. Source: Jasmine Tucker, Equal Pay For Native Women, https://nwlc-ciw49tixgw5lbab.stackpathdns.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Native-Women-Equal-Pay-2019.pdf.
  7. Jasmine Tucker, Equal Pay For Native Women.
  8. Ibid.
  9. National Women’s Law Center, “The Lifetime Wage Gap by State for Native women,” March 2020, https://nwlc.org/resources/the-lifetime-wage-gap-by-state-for-native-women.
  10. Dedrick Asante Muhammad, Rogelio Tec, and Kathy Ramirez, “Racial Wealth Snapshot: American Indians/Native Americans,” National Community Reinvestment Coalition, November 18, 2019, https://ncrc.org/racial-wealth-snapshot-american-indians-native-americans; Craig Benson, Poverty: 2018 and 2019 (September 2020), https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/acs/acsbr20-04.pdf; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Official unemployment rate was 3.9 percent in December 2018,” January 9, 2019, https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2019/official-unemployment-rate-was-3-point-9-percent-in-december-2018-u-6-was-7-point-6-percent.htm.
  11. Julie Anderson, Breadwinner Mothers by Race/Ethnicity and State (April 2020), https://iwpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/QF-Breadwinner-Mothers-by-Race-FINAL-46.pdf Note: Breadwinner mothers are defined as single mothers who head a household or married mothers who generate at least 40 percent of a household’s joint income.
  12. AnitaB.Org, “Native Women’s Equal Pay Day,” AnitaB.Org, September 23, 2019, https://anitab.org/blog/policy-advocacy/native-womens-equal-pay-day.
  13. Dedrick Asante Muhammad, Rogelio Tec, and Kathy Ramirez, “Racial Wealth Snapshot: American Indians/Native Americans”; Indian Health Service, “Disparities,” October 2019, https://www.ihs.gov/newsroom/factsheets/disparities.
  14. Maya Salam, “Native American Women Are Facing a Crisis,” The New York Times, April 12, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/12/us/native-american-women-violence.html.
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “CDC data show disproportionate COVID-19 impact in American Indian/Alaska Native Populations,” August 19, 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0819-covid-19-impact-american-indian-alaska-native.html.