You are using an outdated browser.
For a better experience, please upgrade your browser here.

50 Ways to Fight Bias endnotes

Endnotes

50 Ways to Fight Bias draws on research from leading experts and findings from LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company’s Women in the Workplace study. Below is the full list of citations:

  1. Madeline E. Heilman and Michelle C. Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due: Attributional Rationalization of Women’s Success in Male-Female Teams,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90, no. 5 (2005): 905–26; Madeline E. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias,” Research in Organizational Behavior 32 (2012): 113–35.
  2. Lilia M. Cortina, Dana Kabat-Farr, Emily A. Leskinen, et al., “Selective Incivility as Modern Discrimination in Organizations: Evidence and Impact,” Journal of Management 39, no. 6 (2013): 1579–1605, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0149206311418835; Kieran Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech: Interrupt Men,” Slate, July 23, 2014, http://www.slate.com/blogs/lexicon_valley/2014/07/23/study_men_interrupt_women_more_in_tech_workplaces_but_high_ranking_women.html.
  3. Christopher F. Karpowitz, Tali Mendelberg, and Lee Shaker, “Gender Inequality in Deliberative Participation,” American Political Science Review 106, no. 3 (2012): 533–47.
  4. Cortina, Kabat-Farr, Leskinen, et al., “Selective Incivility as Modern Discrimination in Organizations”; Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech.”
  5. Tammy D. Allen, Lillian T. Eby, Mark L. Poteet, et al., “Career Benefits Associated with Mentoring for Proteges: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89, no. 1 (February 2004): 127–36, http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2004-10572-010; George F. Dreher and Taylor H. Cox Jr., “Race, gender, and opportunity: A study of compensation attainment and the establishment of mentoring relationships,” Journal of Applied Psychology 81, no. 3 (1996): 297–308, http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2004-10572-010.
  6. Allen, Eby, Poteet, et al., “Career Benefits Associated with Mentoring for Proteges.”
  7. Catalyst, Mentoring: Necessary but Insufficient for Advancement (2010), http://www.catalyst.org/system/files/Mentoring_Necessary_But_Insufficient_for_Advancement_Final_1206; LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2018 (October 2018), www.womenintheworkplace.com; Center for Talent Innovation, “The Sponsorship Dividend” (2019), 'https://www.talentinnovation.org/_private/assets/TheSponsorDividend_KeyFindingsCombined-CTI.pdf.
  8. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  9. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: NYU Press, 2014); Laurie A. Rudman, Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, Peter Glick, and Julie E. Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards: Advances in Backlash Theory,” in Patricia Devine and Ashby Plant, eds., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 45 (Burlington: Academic Press, 2012): 167–227.
  10. Mark L. Egan, Gregor Matvos, and Amit Seru, “When Harry Fired Sally: The Double Standard in Punishing Misconduct,” NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 23242 (March 2017), http://www.nber.org/papers/w23242; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards”; Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due.”
  11. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  12. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Shelley Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?” American Journal of Sociology 112, no. 5 (March 2007): 1297–1339, https://sociology.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/getting_a_job-_is_there_a_motherhood_penalty.pdf; Katherine Weisshaar, “From Opt Out to Blocked Out: The Challenges for Labor Market Re-entry after Family-Related Employment Lapses,” American Sociological Review 83, no. 1 (2018): 34–60.
  13. Miller McPherson, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M. Cook, “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks,” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 415–44, http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415; Michelle R. Hebl, Jessica Bigazzi Foster, Laura M. Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination: A Field Study of Bias Toward Homosexual Applicants,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): 815–25, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0146167202289010; Lauren A. Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching: The Case of Elite Professional Service Firms,” American Sociological Review 77, no. 6 (2012): 999–1022, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0003122412463213.
  14. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  15. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  16. Rhea E. Steinpreis, Katie A. Anders, and Dawn Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates: A National Empirical Study,” Sex Roles 41, nos. 7–8 (1999): 509–28.
  17. Claudia Goldin and Cecilia Rouse, “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians,” The American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (2000): 715–41.
  18. Richard F. Martell, Cynthia Emrich, and David M. Lane, “Male-Female Differences: A Computer Simulation,” American Psychologist 51, no. 2 (1996): 157–58, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.2.157.
  19. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias.”
  20. Egan, Matvos, and Seru, “When Harry Fired Sally”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards”; Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due”; Victoria L. Brescoll, Erica Dawson, and Eric Luis Uhlmann, “Hard Won and Easily Lost: The Fragile Status of Leaders in Gender-Stereotype-Incongruent Occupations,” Psychological Science 21, no. 11 (2010): 1640–42, http://gap.hks.harvard.edu/hard-won-and-easily-lost-fragile-status-leaders-gender-stereotype-incongruent-occupations.
  21. Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due.”
  22. Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech.”
  23. Ibid.
  24. Research cited by Katty Kay and Claire Shipman, “The Confidence Gap,” The Atlantic, May 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/04/the-confidence-gap/359815/; Michelle C. Haynes and Madeline E. Heilman, “It Had to Be You (Not Me)! Women’s Attributional Rationalization of Their Contribution to Successful Joint Work Outcomes,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 39, no. 7 (2013): 956–69.
  25. Georges Desvaux, Sandrine Devillard-Hoellinger, and Mary C. Meaney, “A Business Case for Women,” The McKinsey Quarterly, September 2008, 4, http://www.womenscolleges.org/files/pdfs/BusinessCaseforWomen.pdf.
  26. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  27. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2017 (October 2017), www.womenintheworkplace.com; Madeline E. Heilman and Tyler G. Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks? The Implied Communality Deficit,” Journal of Applied Psychology 92, no. 1 (2007): 81–92; Madeline E. Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success: Reactions to Women Who Succeed at Male Gender-Typed Tasks,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89, no. 3 (2004): 416–27.
  28. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  29. Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  30. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”; Weisshaar, “From Opt Out to Blocked Out.”
  31. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”
  35. Scott Coltrane et al., “Fathers and Flexibility Stigma,” Journal of Social Issues 69, no. 2 (2013): 279–302; Laurie A. Rudman and Kris Mescher, “Penalizing Men Who Request a Family Leave: Is Flexibility Stigma a Femininity Stigma?” Journal of Social Issues 69, no. 2 (2013): 32–40; Jennifer L. Berdahl and Sue H. Moon, “Workplace Mistreatment of Middle Class Workers Based on Sex, Parenthood, and Caregiving,” Journal of Social Issues 69, no. 2 (2013): 341–66; Adam B. Butler and Amie Skattebo, “What Is Acceptable for Women May Not Be for Men: The Effect of Family Conflicts with Work on Job-Performance Ratings,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 77, no. 4 (2004): 553–64.
  36. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather”; Hebl, Foster, Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination”; Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching.”
  37. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather.”
  38. Tammy Allen et al., “The Mentor's Perspective: A Qualitative Inquiry and Future Research Agenda,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 51 (August 1997): 70–89, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236344793_The_Mentor's_Perspective_A_Qualitative_Inquiry_and_Future_Research_Agenda.
  39. Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching”; Hebl, Foster, Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination.”
  40. C. M. Riordan, “Relational demography within groups: Past developments, contradictions, and new directions,” in G. R. Ferris, ed., Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, vol. 19 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 2000), 131–73.
  41. Catalyst, Mentoring: Necessary but Insufficient for Advancement; Dreher and Cox, “Race, gender, and opportunity”; Center for Talent Innovation, “The Sponsorship Dividend.”
  42. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2018.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Hebl, Foster, Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination”; Elizabeth R. Cole, “Intersectionality and Research in Psychology,” American Psychological Association 64, no. 3 (2009): 170–80, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/45e9/502eb6d9c792444ba6543d6ac5293b65dd1a.pdf; Emma Mishel, “Discrimination Against Queer Women in the U.S. Workforce : A Résumé Audit Study,” Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World 2 (2016): 1–13, http://gap.hks.harvard.edu/discrimination-against-queer-women-us-workforce-resume-audit-study.
  45. Professor Kimberlé Crenshaw coined the term “intersectionality.” See Kimberlé Crenshaw, “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics,” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989, no. 1 (1989): 139–67, http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=uclf.
  46. Nina A. Nabors, Ruth L. Hall, Marie L. Miville, et al., “Multiple Minority Group Oppression: Divided We Stand?” Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association 5, no. 3 (2001): 101–5, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1011652808415.
  47. Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech.”
  48. Madeline E. Heilman and Julie J. Chen, “Same Behavior, Different Consequences: Reactions to Men’s and Women’s Altruistic Citizenship Behaviors,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90, no. 3 (2005): 431–41.
  49. Kieran Snyder, “The Abrasiveness Trap: High-Achieving Men and Women Are Described Differently in Reviews,” Fortune, August 26, 2014, http://fortune.com/2014/08/26/performance-review-gender-bias.
  50. Paul Ingram and Tal Simons, “Institutional and Resource Dependence Determinants of Responsiveness to Work-Family Issues,” The Academy of Management Journal 38, no. 5 (1995): 1466–82, http://www.jstor.org/stable/256866?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents; Sangeeta Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity,” Gallup (January 20, 2014), https://www.gallup.com/workplace/236543/business-benefits-gender-diversity.aspx; Sara Ellison and Wallace P. Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm,” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 23, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 465–81, https://economics.mit.edu/files/8851; Vivian Hunt, Lareina Yee, Sara Prince, and Sundiatu Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity, McKinsey & Company (2018), https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/delivering-through-diversity; Katherine W. Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter,” Scientific American, October 1, 2014, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-diversity-makes-us-smarter.
  51. Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity”; Ellison and Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm”; Hunt, Yee, Prince, and Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity; Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.”
  52. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  53. Kathleen McGinn and Nicole Tempest, Heidi Roizen, Harvard Business School Case Study #9-800-228 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2008); Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success”; Laurie A. Rudman, “Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women: The Costs and Benefits of Counterstereotypical Impression Management,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, no. 3 (1998): 629–45, http://search.committee.module.rutgers.edu/pdf/Rudman_self_promoing.pdf.
  54. Corinne A. Moss-Racusin and Laurie A. Rudman, “Disruptions in Women's Self-Promotion: The Backlash Avoidance Model,” Psychology of Women Quarterly 34, no. 2 (2010): 186–202, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2010.01561.x'; Rudman, “Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  55. Joan C. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall,” Academe 90, no. 6 (November–December 2004): 16–20, https://www.provost.umich.edu/faculty/family/resources/pdf/Hitting-the-Maternal-Wall-Williams.pdf; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”
  56. Lisa Feldman Barrett and Eliza Bliss-Moreau, “She’s Emotional. He’s Having a Bad Day: Attributional Explanations for Emotion Stereotypes,” Emotion 9, no. 5 (2009): 649–58, https://www.affective-science.org/pubs/2009/shes-emotional-2009.pdf; Carolyn Centeno Milton, “Psychological Research Shows How Biased We Are When It Comes to Female Leadership: An Interview with Madeline Heilman,” Forbes, May 15, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/carolyncenteno/2018/05/15/psychological-research-shows-how-biased-we-are-when-it-comes-to-female-leadership/#2acee72e1023; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  57. Ibid.
  58. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  59. McGinn and Tempest, Heidi Roizen; Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success.”
  60. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  61. Shelley Correll and Lori Mackenzie, “To Succeed in Tech, Women Need More Visibility,” Harvard Business Review, September 13, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/09/to-succeed-in-tech-women-need-more-visibility.
  62. Karpowitz, Mendelberg, and Shaker, “Gender Inequality in Deliberative Participation”; Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due”; Melissa C. Thomas-Hunt and Katherine W. Phillips, “When What You Know Is Not Enough: Expertise and Gender Dynamics in Task Groups,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30, no. 12 (2004): 1585–98; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  63. Shelley Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces: A Small Wins Approach to Organizational Change,” Gender & Society 31, no. 6 (December 1, 2017): 725–50, https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/faculty-research/publications/reducing-gender-biases-modern-workplaces-small-wins-approach.
  64. Eric Luis Uhlmann and Geoffrey L. Cohen, “Constructed Criteria: Redefining Merit to Justify Discrimination,” Psychological Science 16, no. 6 (2005): 474–80. For a discussion, see Cheryl Staats, State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review 2014, Kirwan Institute, Ohio State University (2014); Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces”; Lori Mackenzie, JoAnne Wehner, and Shelley Correll, “Why Most Performance Evaluations Are Biased, and How to Fix Them,” Harvard Business Review, January 11, 2019, https://hbr.org/2019/01/why-most-performance-evaluations-are-biased-and-how-to-fix-them.
  65. Cecilia H. Mo, “The Consequences of Explicit and Implicit Gender Attitudes and Candidate Quality in the Calculations of Voters,” Political Behavior 37, no. 2 (2015): 357–95; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards”; Anne M. Koenig, Alice H. Eagly, Abigail A. Mitchell, and Tiina Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms,” Psychological Bulletin 137, no. 4 (2011): 616–42, http://www.academia.edu/14081116/Are_Leader_Stereotypes_Masculine_A_Meta-Analysis_of_Three_Research_Paradigms.
  66. Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due.”
  67. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  68. Ibid.
  69. Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces”; Joelle Emerson, “Don’t Give Up on Unconscious Bias Training—Make It Better,” Harvard Business Review, April 28, 2017, https://hbr.org/2017/04/dont-give-up-on-unconscious-bias-training-make-it-better.
  70. Brian Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes,” European Review of Social Psychology 18, no. 1 (2007): 36–88, http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/business/20061202money2.pdf; Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, and Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine?”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  71. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  72. Allen, Eby, Poteet, et al., “Career Benefits Associated with Mentoring for Proteges”; Dreher and Cox, “Race, gender, and opportunity.”
  73. Catalyst, Mentoring: Necessary but Insufficient for Advancement; LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2020; Center for Talent Innovation, “The Sponsorship Dividend.”
  74. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019; Catalyst and Deloitte, Missing Pieces Report: The 2018 Board Diversity Census of Women and Minorities on Fortune 500 Boards (2018), https://www.catalyst.org/system/files/missing_pieces_report_01152019_final.pdf
  75. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather.”
  76. Melissa Korn, “Choice of Work Partner Splits Along Gender Lines,” The Wall Street Journal, June 6, 2012, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303506404577448652549105934; Hebl, Foster, Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination”; Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching”; Catalyst, Mentoring: Necessary but Insufficient for Advancement.
  77. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria”; Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces.”
  78. Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, John F. Dovidio, Victoria L. Brescoll, et al., “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 41 (2012): 16474–79; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  79. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates.”
  80. Eileen Appelbaum and Ruth Milkman, “Leaves That Pay: Employer and Worker Experiences with Paid Family Leave in California,” Center for Economic and Policy Research (2011), http://cepr.net/documents/publications/paid-family-leave-1-2011.pdf.
  81. Ibid.
  82. Coltrane et al., “Fathers and Flexibility Stigma”; Rudman and Mescher, “Penalizing Men Who Request a Family Leave”; Berdahl and Moon, “Workplace Mistreatment of Middle Class Workers Based on Sex, Parenthood, and Caregiving”; Butler and Skattebo, “What Is Acceptable for Women May Not Be for Men.”
  83. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  84. Coltrane et al., “Fathers and Flexibility Stigma”; Rudman and Mescher, “Penalizing Men Who Request a Family Leave”; Berdahl and Moon, “Workplace Mistreatment of Middle Class Workers Based on Sex, Parenthood, and Caregiving”; Butler and Skattebo, “What Is Acceptable for Women May Not Be for Men.”
  85. Shelley Correll and Caroline Simard, “Research: Vague Feedback Is Holding Women Back,” Harvard Business Review, April 29, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/04/research-vague-feedback-is-holding-women-back; LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2018.
  86. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  87. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  88. Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  89. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates.”
  90. Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes.”
  91. Ibid.
  92. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria.”
  93. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather”; Hebl, Foster, Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination”; Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching.”
  94. Joan Williams, Katherine Phillips, and Erica Hall, Double Jeopardy: Gender Bias Against Women in Science, The Center for WorkLife Law (2014), https://worklifelaw.org/publications/Double-Jeopardy-Report_v6_full_web-sm.pdf; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  95. Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes”; Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, and Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine?”
  96. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2020.
  97. Correll and Simard, “Research: Vague Feedback Is Holding Women Back”; Juan M. Madera, Michelle R. Hebl, and Randi C. Martin, “Gender and letters of recommendation for academia: Agentic and communal differences,” Journal of Applied Psychology 94, no. 6 (November 2009): 1591–99, http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0016539.
  98. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria.”
  99. Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, and Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine?”; Madera, Hebl, and Martin, “Gender and letters of recommendation for academia”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  100. Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  101. Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech.”
  102. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  103. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria”; Mackenzie, Wehner, and Correll, “Why Most Performance Evaluations Are Biased, and How to Fix Them.”
  104. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  105. Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”
  106. Weisshaar, “From Opt Out to Blocked Out.”
  107. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  108. Ibid.
  109. Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due”; Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias.”
  110. Allen, Eby, Poteet, et al., “Career Benefits Associated with Mentoring for Proteges.”
  111. Herminia Ibarra, “Why All Women Need a Professional Network” (2016), https://leanin.org/education/building-effective-networks; Allen, Eby, Poteet, et al., “Career Benefits Associated with Mentoring for Proteges”; Catalyst, Mentoring: Necessary but Insufficient for Advancement.
  112. Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching”; Audrey J. Murrell and Stacy Blake-Beard, Mentoring Diverse Leaders (New York: Routledge, 2017); Center for Talent Innovation, “The Sponsorship Dividend.”
  113. LeanIn.Org and SurveyMonkey poll conducted January 23–25, 2018, among a national sample of 2,950 employed adults, https://leanin.org/sexual-harassment-backlash-survey-results.
  114. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  115. Stephen Benard and Shelley J. Correll, “Normative Discrimination and the Motherhood Penalty,” Gender and Society 24, no. 5 (2010): 616–46, https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243210383142; Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  116. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2020.
  117. Stefanie K. Johnson, David R. Hekman, and Elsa T. Chan, “If There’s Only One Woman in Your Candidate Pool, There’s Statistically No Chance She’ll Be Hired,” Harvard Business Review, April 26, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/04/if-theres-only-one-woman-in-your-candidate-pool-theres-statistically-no-chance-shell-be-hired.
  118. Ibid.
  119. Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching”; Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Moss-Racusin, Dovidio, Brescoll, et al., “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  120. Ibid.
  121. Ibid.
  122. Ibid.
  123. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2018; Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York: Basic Books, 1977).
  124. Ibid.
  125. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria.”
  126. Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces”; Mackenzie, Wehner, and Correll, “Why Most Performance Evaluations Are Biased, and How to Fix Them.”
  127. Alexandra Kalev, Erin Kelly, and Frank Dobbin, “Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies,” American Sociological Review 71, no. 4 (August 2006): 589–617; Frank Dobbin and Alexandra Kalev, “Why Firms Need Diversity Managers and Task Forces,” in M. Pilati, H. Sheikh, C. Tilly, and F. Sperotti, eds., How Global Migration Changes the Workforce Diversity Equation (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014), 170–98.
  128. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  129. Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due.”
  130. For an example, see Mozilla, “Mozilla Community Participation Guidelines,” updated November 28, 2018, https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/about/governance/policies/participation.
  131. Ibid.
  132. Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”
  133. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  134. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  135. Ibid.
  136. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Naomi Ellemers, “Gender Stereotypes,” Annual Review of Psychology 69 (2018): 275–98; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  137. Heilman and Chen, “Same Behavior, Different Consequences.”
  138. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather.”
  139. Emilio J. Castilla, “Social Networks and Employee Performance in a Call Center,” American Journal of Sociology 110, no. 5 (March 2005): 1243–83.
  140. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  141. Peter D. Brandon and Jeromey B. Temple, “Family Provisions at the Workplace and Their Relationship to Absenteeism, Retention, and Productivity of Workers: Timely Evidence from Prior Data,” Australian Journal of Social Issues 42, no. 4 (Summer 2007; issued online December 22, 2016): 447–60, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j.1839-4655.2007.tb00071.x.
  142. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall”; Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”
  143. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather”; Center for Talent Innovation, “The Sponsorship Dividend”; Herminia Ibarra, “Homophily and Differential Returns: Sex Differences in Network Structure and Access in an Advertising Firm,” Administrative Science Quarterly 37, no. 3 (September 1992): 422–47; Herminia Ibarra, “Why strategic networking is harder for women,” World Economic Forum, April 7, 2016, https://herminiaibarra.com/why-strategic-networking-is-harder-for-women/.
  144. Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity”; Ellison and Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm”; Hunt, Yee, Prince, and Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity; Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.”
  145. Karpowitz, Mendelberg, and Shaker, “Gender Inequality in Deliberative Participation.”
  146. Cortina, Kabat-Farr, Leskinen, et al., “Selective Incivility as Modern Discrimination in Organizations”; Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech.”
  147. Gina Gibson-Beverly and Jonathan P. Schwartz, “Attachment, Entitlement, and the Impostor Phenomenon in Female Graduate Students,” Journal of College Counseling 11, no. 2 (2008): 120–21; Pauline Rose Clance and Suzanne Ament Imes, “The Impostor Phenomenon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 15, no. 3 (1978): 241–47.
  148. Gibson-Beverly and Schwartz, “Attachment, Entitlement, and the Impostor Phenomenon in Female Graduate Students”; Clance and Imes, “The Impostor Phenomenon in High Achieving Women”; Haynes and Heilman, “It Had to Be You (Not Me)!”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  149. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  150. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  151. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2018.
  152. Ibid., unpublished data.
  153. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  154. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2018.
  155. Rudman, “Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women”; Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Moss-Racusin and Rudman, “Disruptions in Women's Self-Promotion”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  156. Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes”; Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, and Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine?”
  157. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  158. Ibid.
  159. Ibid.
  160. Ibid.
  161. Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces”; Emerson, “Don’t Give Up on Unconscious Bias Training—Make It Better.”
  162. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria.”
  163. Moss-Racusin, Dovidio, Brescoll, et al., “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students”; Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  164. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019; M. Paz Galupo and Courtney A. Resnick, “Experiences of LGBT Microaggressions in the Workplace: Implications for Policy,” in Sexual Orientation and Transgender Issues in Organizations: Global Perspectives on LGBT Workforce Diversity (Springer, 2016), 271–87.
  165. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  166. Ibid.
  167. Ibid.
  168. Ibid.
  169. Ibid., unpublished data.
  170. Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces.”
  171. Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity”; Ellison and Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm”; Hunt, Yee, Prince, and Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity; Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.”
  172. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019, unpublished data.
  173. Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  174. Eric Luis Uhlmann and Geoffrey L. Cohen, “‘I think it, therefore it’s true’: Effects of self-perceived objectivity on hiring discrimination,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 104, no. 2 (2007): 207–23; Melissa Sandgren, “The paradox of meritocracy,” World Economic Forum, March 21, 2016, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/the-paradox-of-meritocracy/; Emilio J. Castilla and Stephen Benard, “The Paradox of Meritocracy in Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly 55, no. 4 (2010): 543–676, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2189/asqu.2010.55.4.543.
  175. Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity”; Ellison and Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm”; Hunt, Yee, Prince, and Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity; Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.”
  176. Neha Mahajan and Karen Wynn, “Origins of ‘us’ versus ‘them’: Prelinguistic infants prefer similar others,” Cognition 124, no. 2 (2012): 227–33; McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather”; Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching.”
  177. Korn, “Choice of Work Partner Splits Along Gender Lines”; Hebl, Foster, Mannix, et al., “Formal and Interpersonal Discrimination”; Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching.”
  178. Moss-Racusin, Dovidio, Brescoll, et al., “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students”; Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  179. Heilman and Hayes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due”; Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias.”
  180. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  181. Brandon and Temple, “Family Provisions at the Workplace and Their Relationship to Absenteeism, Retention, and Productivity of Workers.”
  182. Ibid.
  183. Appelbaum and Milkman, “Leaves That Pay.”
  184. Brandon and Temple, “Family Provisions at the Workplace and Their Relationship to Absenteeism, Retention, and Productivity of Workers.”
  185. Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  186. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Ellemers, “Gender Stereotypes”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  187. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather.”
  188. Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes”; Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, and Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine?”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  189. Amy J. C. Cuddy, Peter Glick, and Anna Beninger, “The Dynamics of Warmth and Competence Judgments, and Their Outcomes in Organizations,” Research in Organizational Behavior 31 (2011): 73–98; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  190. McPherson, Smith-Lovin, and Cook, “Birds of a Feather”; Rivera, “Hiring as Cultural Matching”; Center for Talent Innovation, “The Sponsorship Dividend.”
  191. LeanIn.Org and SurveyMonkey poll, January 2018.
  192. Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  193. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, “Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women”; LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2017.
  194. Nosek et al., “Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes”; Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, and Ristikari, “Are leader stereotypes masculine?”
  195. Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  196. Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success”; Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  197. Uhlmann and Cohen, “Constructed Criteria.” For a discussion, see Cheryl Staats, State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review 2014; Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces.”
  198. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  199. Sandgren, “The paradox of meritocracy”; Castilla and Benard, “The Paradox of Meritocracy in Organizations.”
  200. Correll et al., “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”; Williams, “Hitting the Maternal Wall.”
  201. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  202. Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity”; Ellison and Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm”; Hunt, Yee, Prince, and Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity; Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.”
  203. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  204. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates”; Moss-Racusin, Dovidio, Brescoll, et al., “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students.”
  205. Miriam G. Resendez, “The Stigmatizing Effects of Affirmative Action: An Examination of Moderating Variables,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32, no. 1 (2002): 185–206.
  206. Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock, and Lei Lai, “Social incentives for gender divergences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 103 (2007): 84–103, https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/social_incentives_for_gender_differences_in_the_propensity_to_initiate_negotiations-_sometimes_it_does_hurt_to_ask_0.pdf.
  207. McGinn and Tempest, Heidi Roizen; Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success.”
  208. Bowles, Babcock, and Lai, “Social incentives for gender divergences in the propensity to initiate negotiations.”
  209. Heilman and Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick, and Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  210. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2017.
  211. Badal, “The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity”; Ellison and Mullin, “Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm”; Hunt, Yee, Prince, and Dixon-Fyle, Delivering Through Diversity; Phillips, “How Diversity Makes Us Smarter.”
  212. Heilman, “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias”; Ellemers, “Gender Stereotypes”; Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “It Pays to Negotiate,” LeanIn.Org, https://leanin.org/education/negotiation-pays-negotiate/; Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Joan Williams, “Sticking women with the office housework,” Washington Post, April 16, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2014/04/16/sticking-women-with-the-office-housework/?utm_term=.10d838a5021b.
  213. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  214. Alison Andrew, Sarah Cattan, Monica Costa Dias, et al., “How are mothers and fathers balancing work and family under lockdown?” Institute for Fiscal Studies (2020), https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/14860
  215. Arin N. Reeves, “Mansplaining, Manterrupting, and Bropropriating: Gender Bias and the Pervasive Interruption of Women,” Nextions Consulting (2015), http://nextions.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/manterruptions-bropropriation-and-mansplaining-2-yellow-paper-series.pdf
  216. Jukka-Pekka Onela et al., “Using sociometers to quantify social interaction patterns,” Scientific Reports 4, no. 5604 (2014): 1–8, https://www.nature.com/articles/srep05604; Elizabeth J. McClean, Sean R. Martin, Kyle J. Emich, and Col. Todd Woodruff, “The Social Consequences of Voice: An Examination of Voice Type and Gender on Status and Subsequent Leader Emergence,” Academy of Management Journal 61, no. 5 (2018): 1869–91, https://sci-hub.tw/https://journals.aom.org/doi/full/10.5465/amj.2016.0148; Arin N. Reeves, “Mansplaining, Manterrupting, and Bropropriating.”
  217. Susan C. Herring and Sharon Stoerger, “Gender and (A)nonymity in Computer-Mediated Communication,” in J. Holmes, M. Meyerhoff, and S. Ehrlich eds., Handbook of Language and Gender, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2013), https://ella.sice.indiana.edu/~herring/herring.stoerger.pdf; Alisha Hardasani Gupta, “It’s Not Just You: In Online Meetings, Many Women Can’t Get a Word In,” The New York Times, April 14, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/14/us/zoom-meetings-gender.html
  218. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: NYU Press, 2014); Laurie A. Rudman, Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, Peter Glick, and Julie E. Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards: Advances in Backlash Theory,” in Patricia Devine and Ashby Plant, eds., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 45 (Burlington: Academic Press, 2012), 167–227; Arin N. Reeves, “Written in Black and White: Exploring Confirmation Bias in Racialized Perceptions of Writing Skills,” Nextions Consulting (April 2014), http://nextions.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/written-in-black-and-white-yellow-paper-series.pdf; Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,” NBER Working Paper No. 9873 (July 2003), http://www.nber.org/papers/w9873.
  219. Adapted from Minda Harts, The Memo.
  220. Christy Zhou Koval and Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “The Natural Hair Bias in Job Recruitment”; Gail A. Dawson, Katherine A. Karl, and Joy V. Peluchette, “Hair Matters.”
  221. Tsedale Melaku, You Don’t Look Like a Lawyer
  222. Shelley Correll, “Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces: A Small Wins Approach to Organizational Change,” Gender & Society 31, no. 6 (December 1, 2017): 725–50, https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/faculty-research/publications/reducing-gender-biases-modern-workplaces-small-wins-approach.
  223. Laurie A. Rudman, Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, Peter Glick, and Julie E. Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards: Advances in Backlash Theory,” in Patricia Devine and Ashby Plant, eds., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 45 (Burlington: Academic Press, 2012), 167–227.
  224. Alexis McGill Johnson, Rachel Godsil, Jessica MacFarlane, et al., “The ‘Good Hair’ Study: Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Toward Black Women’s Hair,” Perception Institute (2017), https://perception.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/TheGood-HairStudyFindingsReport.pdf; Tina R. Opie and Katherine W. Phillips, “Hair Penalties: The Negative Influence of Afrocentric Hair on Ratings of Black Women’s Dominance and Professionalism,” Frontiers in Psychology 6 (2015): 1311, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01311; Christy Zhou Koval and Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “The Natural Hair Bias in Job Recruitment.”
  225. Tina R. Opie and Katherine W. Phillips, “Hair Penalties,” 1311, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01311; Christy Zhou Koval and Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “The Natural Hair Bias in Job Recruitment.” As of July 2020, only seven states have passed the CROWN Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on hairstyles.
  226. Meghan Burke, Colorblind Racism (Medford, MA: Polity Press, 2018)
  227. Ibid.
  228. Anti-racism educator Jane Elliot gives an eloquent description of how this works; see “Jane Elliott on Her ‘Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes Exercise’ and Fighting Racism,” The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, June 1, 2020, https://youtu.be/f2z-ahJ4uws.
  229. Robin DiAngelo, White Fragility (Boston: Beacon Press, 2018).
  230. Meghan Burke, Colorblind Racism.
  231. Danielle Dickens, “Navigating the Workplace: The Costs and Benefits of Shifting Identities at Work Among Early Career U.S. Black Women,” Sex Roles 78 (2018): 760–74, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-017-0844-x; Daphna Motro, J. B. Evans, A. P. J. Ellis, and L. Benson III, “Race and Reactions to Women’s Expressions of Anger at Work: Examining the Effects of the ‘Angry Black Woman’ Stereotype.” In review, https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/10.5465/AMBPP.2019.11230abstract. Note that Black women don’t always get more pushback when they behave assertively. One study found that dominant Black female leaders don’t get the same kind of backlash as white female leaders who behave dominantly. See Robert Livingston, Ashleigh Rosette, and Ella Washington, "Can an Agentic Black Woman Get Ahead? The Impact of Race and Interpersonal Dominance on Perceptions of Female Leaders," Psychological Science, March 14, 2012, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797611428079.
  232. Tsedale M. Melaku, You Don’t Look Like a Lawyer: Black Women and Systemic Gendered Racism, Kindle ed. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2019); Wendy Leo Moore, Reproducing Racism: White Space, Elite Law Schools and Racial Inequality (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).
  233. Wendy Ashley, “The Angry Black Woman: The Impact of Pejorative Stereotypes on Psychotherapy with Black Women,” Social Work in Public Health 29, no. 1 (January 2014), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258280319_The_Angry_Black_Woman_The_Impact_of_Pejorative_Stereotypes_on_Psychotherapy_with_Black_Women; J. A. Lewis, R. Mendenhall, S. A. Harwood, and M. Browne Huntt, “Ain’t I a Woman?” The Counseling Psychologist 44, no. 5 (2016): 758–80, doi:10.1177/0011000016641193; Tsedale M. Melaku, You Don’t Look Like a Lawyer.
  234. Melissa Harris Perry, Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011).
  235. J. Celeste Walley-Jean, “Debunking the Myth of the ‘Angry Black Woman’: An Exploration of Anger in Young African American Women,” Black Women, Gender + Families 3, no. 2 (2009): 68–86, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/blacwomegendfami.3.2.0068#metadata_info_tab_contents.
  236. Adapted from Minda Harts, The Memo: What Women of Color Need to Know to Secure a Seat at the Table (New York: Seal Press, 2019).
  237. H. Farmer, M. Hewstone, and O. Spiegler, et al., “Positive intergroup contact modulates fusiform gyrus activity to black and white faces,” Scientific Reports 10 (2020), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-59633-9.
  238. “Thirty Years of Investigating the Own-Race Bias in Memory for Faces: A Meta-Analytic Review,” Psychology, Public Policy and Law 7 (March 2001): 3–35, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232572386_Thirty_Years_of_Investigating_the_Own-Race_Bias_in_Memory_for_Faces_A_Meta-Analytic_Review
  239. Ibid.
  240. Ibid.
  241. Alison Andrew, Sarah Cattan, Monica Costa Dias, et al., “How are mothers and fathers balancing work and family under lockdown?” Institute for Fiscal Studies (2020), https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/14860
  242. Alexis McGill Johnson, Rachel Godsil, Jessica MacFarlane, et al., “The ‘Good Hair’ Study,” http://www.jetmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/PERxtheGoodHairStudyReport-1.pdf; Jaclyn S. Wong and Andrew M. Penner, “Gender and the returns to attractiveness,” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 44 (2016): 113–23, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562416300518
  243. Christy Zhou Koval and Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “The Natural Hair Bias in Job Recruitment,” Social Psychological and Personality Science, August 19, 2020, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1948550620937937; Gail A. Dawson, Katherine A. Karl, and Joy V. Peluchette, “Hair Matters: Toward Understanding Natural Hair Bias in the Workplace,” Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, June 6, 2019, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1548051819848998.
  244. Christy Zhou Koval and Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “The Natural Hair Bias in Job Recruitment”; Gail A. Dawson, Katherine A. Karl, and Joy V. Peluchette, “Hair Matters.”
  245. Gail A. Dawson, Katherine A. Karl, and Joy V. Peluchette, “Hair Matters”; Tsedale Melaku, You Don’t Look Like a Lawyer.
  246. Christy Zhou Koval and Ashleigh Shelby Rosette, “The Natural Hair Bias in Job Recruitment.”
  247. Jameelah Nasheed, “A Brief History of Black Hair, Politics, and Discrimination,” Teen Vogue, August 2019, https://www.teenvogue.com/story/a-brief-history-of-black-hair-politics-and-discrimination.
  248. Alice L. Pawley, “Learning from small numbers: Studying ruling relations that gender and race the structure of U.S. engineering education,” Journal of Engineering Education 108 (February 26, 2019): 13–31, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jee.20247.
  249. National Urban League staff, personal communication, July 22, 2020.
  250. Angelica Leigh and Shimul Melwani, “#BlackEmployeesMatter: Mega-Threats, Identity Fusion, and Enacting Positive Deviance in Organization,” Academy of Management Review 44, no. 3 (2019), https://journals.aom.org/doi/full/10.5465/amr.2017.0127.
  251. U.S. Census Bureau, “Household Pulse Survey Public Use File” (September 8, 2020), https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/household-pulse-survey/datasets.html; Jacob Bor, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, et al., “Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: A population-based, quasi-experimental study,” The Lancet 392, no. 1014 (June 21, 2018): 302–10, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)31130-9/fulltext.
  252. Advice formulated in partnership with the Executive Leadership Council, July 15, 2020.
  253. See Sheryl Sandberg, Option B, chapter 2, “Kicking the Elephant Out of the Room” (New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 2017).
  254. Felicia Campbell and Pamela Valera, “‘The Only Thing New Is the Cameras’: A Study of U.S. College Students’ Perceptions of Police Violence on Social Media,” Journal of Black Studies 51 (July 2020), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0021934720935600.
  255. Adapted from Minda Harts, The Memo: What Women of Color Need to Know to Secure a Seat at the Table (New York: Seal Press, 2019).
  256. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: NYU Press, 2014); Laurie A. Rudman, Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, Peter Glick, and Julie E. Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards: Advances in Backlash Theory,” in Patricia Devine and Ashby Plant, eds., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 45 (Burlington: Academic Press, 2012): 167–227.
  257. Adapted from Minda Harts, The Memo.
  258. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company,Women in the Workplace 2020 (October 2020), https://womenintheworkplace.com/.
  259. Sari Mansour, “Work-family conflict/Family-work conflict, job stress, burnout and intention to leave in the hotel industry in Quebec (Canada): Moderating role of need for family friendly practices as ‘resource passageways,’” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 29, no. 16 (2018): 2399–430, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09585192.2016.1239216; Laura Wheeler Poms, Lila C. Fleming, and Kathryn H. Jacobsen, “Work-Family Conflict, Stress, Physical and Mental Health: A Model for Understanding Barriers to and Opportunities for Women’s Well-Being at Home and in the Workplace,” Social Determinants of Health, Virtual Issue (2016): 444–57, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wmh3.211@10.1111/(ISSN)1948-4682.social-determinants-of-health.
  260. Peter D. Brandon and Jeromey B. Temple, “Family Provisions at the Workplace and Their Relationship to Absenteeism, Retention, and Productivity of Workers,” Australian Journal of Social Issues 42, no. 4 (Summer 2007; issued online December 22, 2016): 447–60, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j.1839-4655.2007.tb00071.x; Eileen Appelbaum and Ruth Milkman, “Leaves That Pay: Employer and Worker Experiences with Paid Family Leave in California,” Center for Economic and Policy Research (2011), http://cepr.net/documents/publications/paid-family-leave-1-2011.pdf.
  261. Christin L. Munsch and Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, “What I Think You Think About Family and Work: Pluralistic Ignorance and the Ideal Worker Norm,” in Sampson Lee Blair and Josip Obradović, eds., The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges (Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018), https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/S1530-353520180000013019/full/html?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Contemporary_Perspectives_in_Family_Research_TrendMD_1; Robert W. Drago, Striking a Balance: Work, Family, Life (Boston: Dollars & Sense, 2007).
  262. Christin L. Munsch and Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, “What I Think You Think about Family and Work”; Robert W. Drago, Striking a Balance.
  263. Alison Andrew, Sarah Cattan, Monica Costa Dias, et al., “How are mothers and fathers balancing work and family under lockdown?”
  264. Christin L. Munsch and Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, “What I Think You Think About Family and Work”; Robert W. Drago, Striking a Balance.
  265. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  266. J. Baxter Oliphant, “Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines,” Pew Research Center (September 28, 2017), https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/28/views-about-whether-whites-benefit-from-societal-advantages-split-sharply-along-racial-and-partisan-lines/.
  267. Ijeoma Oluo, So You Want to Talk About Race (New York: Seal Press, 2019); L. Taylor Phillips and Brian S. Lowery, “The hard-knock life? Whites claim hardships in response to racial inequity,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 61 (November 2015): 12–18, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022103115000852.
  268. Ijeoma Oluo, So You Want to Talk About Race; L. Taylor Phillips and Brian S. Lowery, “The hard-knock life?”
  269. Victoria Alexander, “Responding to Common Anti-BLM Phrases,” Instagram, June 7, 2020, https://www.instagram.com/p/CBJCtFaD-2L/?igshid=dllhjwuubagx.
  270. Erika Martensson, Fredrik Bjorklund, and Martin Backstrom, “‘Privilege is invisible to those who have it’: Some evidence that men understand the magnitude of gender differences in income,” Current Research in Social Psychology 27, no. 1 (July 2019): 1–8, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336216869_Privilege_is_invisible_to_those_who_have_it_Some_evidence_that_men_underestimate_the_magnitude_of_gender_differences_in_income.
  271. Devah Pager, “The Mark of a Criminal Record,” American Journal of Sociology 108, no. 5 (2003): 937–75.
  272. Ta-Nehisi Coates, “The Case for Reparations,” The Atlantic, June 2014, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/.
  273. J. Baxter Oliphant, “Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines.”
  274. Robin DiAngelo, White Fragility; L. Taylor Phillips and Brian S. Lowery, “The hard-knock life?”
  275. “The 1619 Project,” New York Times Magazine, August 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/1619-america-slavery.html; Ta-Nehisi Coates, “The Case for Reparations,” The Atlantic, June 2014, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/; Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (New York: The New Press, 2010); Janell Ross, “As McConnell’s family shows, the legacy of slavery persists in most American lives,” NBC News, July 9, 2019, https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1052&context=uclf.
  276. Ta-Nehisi Coates, “The Case for Reparations”; Ava DuVernay, dir., 13th, 2016, https://www.netflix.com/title/80091741.
  277. AP-NORC poll (2019), https://apnorc.org/projects/the-legacy-of-slavery; Southern Poverty Law Center, “Teaching Hard History: American Slavery” (2018), https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/tt_hard_history_american_slavery.pdf.
  278. Ta-Nehisi Coates, “The Case for Reparations.”
  279. Ibid.
  280. Ibid.
  281. LeanIn.Org, “Equal Pay,” https://leanin.org/equal-pay-data-about-the-gender-pay-gap; LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019 (October 2019), http://womenintheworkplace.com; law professor Kimberlé Crenshaw coined the term “intersectionality” in 1989 to describe how overlapping and intersecting identities evoke distinct forms of discrimination and inequality. See Kimberlé Crenshaw, “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics,” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989, no. 1 (1989): 139–67, https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1052&context=uclf.
  282. Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,” The American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004): 991–1013.
  283. Tanja Hentschel, Madeline E. Heilman, and Claudia V. Peus, “The Multiple Dimensions of Gender Stereotypes: A Current Look at Men’s and Women’s Characterizations of Others and Themselves,” Frontiers in Psychology 10, art. 11 (2019), https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00011; The stereotype was first described by Mary Wollstonecraft in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792).
  284. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work.
  285. Tanja Hentschel, Madeline E. Heilman, and Claudia V. Peus, “The Multiple Dimensions of Gender Stereotypes.”
  286. Derald Wing Sue, “Microaggressive Stress: Impact on Physical and Mental Health,” in Racial Microaggressions in the Life Experience of Black Americans (Hoboken: Wiley, 2010).
  287. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019.
  288. Ibid.; Kieran Snyder, “How to Get Ahead as a Woman in Tech: Interrupt Men,” Slate, July 23, 2014, http://www.slate.com/blogs/lexicon_valley/2014/07/23/study_men_interrupt_women_more_in_tech_workplaces_but_high_ranking_women.html.
  289. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work; Arin N. Reeves, “Written in Black and White: Exploring Confirmation Bias in Racialized Perceptions of Writing Skills,” Nextions Consulting (April 2014), http://nextions.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/written-in-black-and-white-yellow-paper-series.pdf; Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,” NBER Working Paper No. 9873 (July 2003), http://www.nber.org/papers/w9873.
  290. Laurie A. Rudman, Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, Peter Glick, and Julie E. Phelan, “Reactions to Vanguards.”
  291. Virginia W. Huynh, “Where Are You From? A Validation of the Foreigner Objectification Scale and the Psychological Correlates of Foreigner Objectification Among Asian Americans and Latinos,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 41 (March 2012): 831–46, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-012-9756-9.
  292. Regina Rini, “How to Take Offense: Responding to a Microaggression,” Journal of the American Philosophical Association 4, no. 3 (Fall 2018): 332–51, https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-american-philosophical-association/article/how-to-take-offense-responding-to-microaggression/D99C6911798EE6702072C4115066DF57.
  293. Virginia W. Huynh, “Where Are You From?”
  294. Asia Eaton, Jessica Saunders, et al., “How Gender and Race Stereotypes Impact the Advancement of Scholars in STEM: Professors’ Biased Evaluations of Physics and Biology Post-Doctoral Candidates,” Sex Roles 82 (June 3, 2019), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-019-01052-w; H. Samy Alim, Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race.
  295. Derald Wing Sue, Christina M. Capodilupo, and Aisha M. B. Holder, “Racial Microaggressions in the Life Experience of Black Americans,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 39 (June 2008): 329–36; Tsedale Melaku, You Don’t Look Like a Lawyer.
  296. H. Samy Alim and Geneva Smitherman, Articulate While Black.
  297. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019 (October 2019), https://wiw-report.s3.amazonaws.com/Women_in_the_Workplace_2019.pdf..
  298. Women in the Workplace 2019.
  299. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace 2019 (October 2019), https://womenintheworkplace.com.
  300. Ibid.
  301. AAUW, “Barriers and Bias” (2017), https://www.ncgs.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Barriers-and-Bias-The-Status-of-Women-in-Leadership.pdf; Faye Cocchiara, Myrtle P. Bell, and Daphne Perkins Berry, “Latinas and black women: key factors for a growing proportion of the US workforce,” Equal Opportunities International 25, no. 4 (2006): 272–284, https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/02610150610706258/full/html.
  302. AAUW, “Barriers and Bias”; Cocchiara, Bell, and Berry, “Latinas and black women.”
  303. Negin Ghavami and Letitia Anne Peplau, “An Intersectional Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes: Testing Three Hypotheses,” Psychology of Women Quarterly 37, no. 1 (2012): 113–127, https://sci-hub.tw/https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0361684312464203.
  304. This is a form of the “invisible labor” expected of marginalized people in order to fit into U.S. workplaces, which are predominantly white. See Tsedale Melaku, You Don’t Look Like a Lawyer. Catalyst, “Advancing Latinas in the Workplace: What Managers Need to Know” (2003), https://www.catalyst.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Advancing_Latinas_in_the_Workplace_What_Managers_Need_to_Know.pdf; Jody Agius Vallejo and Stephanie L. Canizales, “Latino/a professionals as entrepreneurs: how race, class, and gender shape entrepreneurial incorporation,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 39, no. 9 (2016), https://scihubtw.tw/https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01419870.2015.1126329?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=rers20.
  305. Catalyst, “Advancing Latinas In the Workplace: What Managers Need to Know”; Vallejo and Canizales, “Latino/a professionals as entrepreneurs.”.
  306. Waleska Suero, “WE DON’T THINK OF IT AS SEXUAL HARASSMENT”: The Intersection of Gender & Ethnicity on Latinas’ Workplace Sexual Harassment Claims,” Chicana/o Latina/o Law Review 33, no. 1 (2015), https://escholarship.org/content/qt0x57d7tc/qt0x57d7tc.pdf?t=npjidz.
  307. Johana P. Lopez, “Speaking with them or speaking for them: A conversation about the effect of stereotypes in the Latina/Hispanic women’s experiences in the United States,” New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development 25, no. 2 (2013): 99–106, https://sci-hub.tw/https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/nha.20020.
  308. Megumi Hosoda, Lam T. Nguyen, and Eugene F. Stone-Romero, “The effect of Hispanic accents on employment decisions,” Journal of Managerial Psychology 27, no. 4 (2012), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235285773_The_effect_of_Hispanic_accents_on_employment_decisions.
  309. Alex Madva, “Implicit Bias and Latina/os in Philosophy,” American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Hispanic/Latino Issues in Philosophy 16, no. 1 (2016), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309457653_Implicit_Bias_and_Latinaos_in_Philosophy.
  310. Jody Agius Vallejo and Jennifer Lee, “Brown picket fences: The immigrant narrative and ‘giving back’ among the Mexican origin middle class, Ethnicities 9, no. 1 (2009): 5–31, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1468796808099902.
  311. Women in the Workplace 2019; Ruta Yemane and Mariña Fernández-Reino, “Latinos in the United States and in Spain: the impact of ethnic group stereotypes on labour market outcomes,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2019), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2019.1622806; Wingfield and Alston, “Maintaining Hierarchies in Predominantly White Organizations.”.
  312. Women in the Workplace 2019 (October 2019), https://womenintheworkplace.com/.
  313. James M. Weyant, “Implicit Stereotyping of Hispanics: Development and Validity of a Hispanic Version of the Implicit Association Test,” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 27, no. 3 (2005), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247722033_Implicit_Stereotyping_of_Hispanics_Development_and_Validity_of_a_Hispanic_Version_of_the_Implicit_Association_Test; in one study, Latinas were rated less competent and less worthy of hiring than any other racial or ethnic group of women: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/06/07/new-study-finds-discrimination-against-women-and-racial-minorities-hiring-sciences.
  314. Adia Harvey Wingfield and Renée Skeete Alston, “Maintaining Hierarchies in Predominantly White Organizations: A Theory of Racial Tasks,” American Behavioral Scientist 58, no. 2 (October 2013), https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213503329; Melissa Abad, "Race, Knowledge, and Tasks: Racialized Occupational Trajectories," Race, Organizations, and the Organizing Process (Research in the Sociology of Organizations) 60 (2019): 111–130, https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X20190000060007.